Formula To Calculate Infusion Rate:
To find out drug concentration multiply the available milligrams by 1000 (1 mg =
1,000 mcg) and then divide the result by the amount of solution.
Now you can start Dopamine infusion at 10 ml/hr ( 10 microdrops per min)
Rule Of 6
The Rule of Six for drug infusion states that:
When (6 * body weight of patient) mg of a drug is diluted in 100 ml,
every ml/hr of the drug infused is equal to one mcg/kg/min
In other words,
(6 * BW) mg diluted in 100ml, 1 ml/hr = 1 mcg/kg/min, where BW - body weight
You can download this file for quick reference
HAPPY LEARNING :-)
"Throughout life people will make you mad, disrespect you and treat you bad. Let God deal with the things they do, cause hate in your heart will consume you too" ~ Will Smith
Even the most ambitious, motivated people occasionally have difficulties getting things done. The good news is that we can often discover why we’re in a slump. Even better, there are ways to get out of the slump and get motivated again.
Here’s 6 ways to get motivated when you feel like doing nothing.
1. Figure out why you’re in a slump.
Here are some of the reasons you may be in a slump:
2. When you’re dreading something, make it almost impossible to NOT do the task.
For example, if you know you want to workout in the morning, try placing your workout clothes next to your bed so they’re the first thing you see when you wake up. Also, call a friend and make plans to meet them at the gym in the morning. Having an accountability partner will increase your likelihood of success.
3. When you’re tired, take care of your body.
Some days, you might need rest. Other days, your body might need exercise. Some days, you just may need to get away from your desk and get some fresh air. Think about how your habits have been recently. Have you been getting adequate rest? Have you been choosing healthy foods and beverages? Have you had a recent illness that has left you feeling rundown? Think about how you’ve been treating your body. Taking great care of your body may help you get out of your slump.
4. When you’re lacking confidence, think about WHY you’re doubting your capabilities.
Are you struggling with negative thinking? Has there been a recent negative comment or event in your life that has been bothering you? Are you comparing yourself to other people? When you’re struggling with negative thinking, give yourself a compliment, or do something fun to rejuvenate your joy.
5. When you’re in the middle of your journey, persevere.
When you set out to achieve a big goal, it’s usually pretty easy to be very motivated at the beginning. At the beginning, you think about the end result, and you are full of anticipation and enthusiasm. It’s also pretty easy to be motivated at the end of a long journey. Once the end is in sight, the excitement of seeing the finish line can propel you forward.
In my opinion, the middle of the journey is usually the hardest. In the middle, the initial excitement has diminished, but you haven’t gotten close to your goal yet. In the middle, you realize exactly how much time and effort is required to complete your journey. You get frustrated and frequently face the difficulty of pushing yourself out of your comfort zone to move forward.
In the middle, keep thinking about your “why.” What are the personal, meaningful, and strong reasons you wanted to achieve your goal in the first place? Oftentimes, remembering our “why” can help give us a boost of motivation when we’re in a slump. Also, remember what Confucius said, “It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.” Keep moving when you’re in the middle. Commit to taking daily actions that move you closer to your end goal, even if they’re extremely tiny actions. Just keep moving.
6. Remember that the slump won’t last forever, and take action immediately to start getting out of it.
Start moving forward with tiny little steps. Remember that perseverance can make a huge difference in your success. Remember that success is a wild journey with many bumps and bends in the road, and not typically the straight line that people envision. Remember that moving forward when you’re not feeling motivated helps you push through your fears, get out of your comfort zone, and win the mental battles you have with yourself. Each step you take during the difficult times helps you feel more confident and capable, and gives you the momentum to continue to move out of your slump.
Any time you set out to achieve something in your life, you will face resistance. That resistance can leave you feeling unmotivated and cause you to sink into a slump. However, pushing through the resistance and taking action to get out of your slump will help set you up for long-term success. When you realize you really can get yourself motivated on your bad days, you will know in the future how to get yourself through additional rough times.
Everyone has the occasional slump. Recognizing the cause of your lack of motivation, and taking action to quickly get out of your slump will help minimize your down time and maximize your success.
I always found myself drawn to people who had an element of certainty to them. It wasn’t the kind of insufferable single-mindedness of powerful people, nor was it the brazen overconfidence of youth. It wasn’t that they necessarily knew more than others, nor did they claim to. They didn’t always get things right, and that wasn’t their end game anyway. I’m not sure what the word was at the time to describe this it-factor. What I knew was that they had reasons – clearly defined, purposeful reasons for why they were doing what they were doing or saying what they were saying or behaving how they were behaving. And not in a carefully-curated, image-conscious way, because they were genuine people. It simply was never willy-nilly with them; they didn’t use the phrase “oh, just because.” Looking back, they were probably best described as intentional.
Sunday school taught me the various du`a’s (supplications) for niyyah (intention). I learned to make intentions before a prayer, before a fast. I was reminded to renew my intentions often, particularly when doing community work. But it wasn’t until later that I could understand the concept broadened to a lifestyle. The first of Imam Nawawi’s 40 hadith, “Actions are according to intention,” is a succinct illustration of the power of intention and the link between our hearts and our deeds. It implies a necessary connection of one’s internal and external states. In a goal-focused, action-oriented culture, it is the internal state that is so easily neglected, and it is cultivated in large part by this quality of being intentional.
Living intentionally is different from setting goals. Goals are yet another outward measure, an accomplishment set in the future, whereas being intentional is an inward existence, and one focused on the present. If goals are the mile markers on our life’s path, intention is our day-to-day walk along it – the pace we’re going at and the route we traverse upon. Without goals, we are caught in a drift, with little direction until we find ourselves asking, perhaps years later, “What am I doing here?” But without intention, we might find ourselves in an arguably worse situation: “What was the purpose of all this?” Intention gives meaning to our movement.
The value of intentional living is hardly taught and often lost, but establishing it results in a much more enriching existence. What I saw in individuals who practiced this skill was how purposeful they were and how much more of life they experienced. And it is a skill, which means it can be learned. Here’s what I have found to be a few ways to develop it:
Change the question
On a more macro level, start shifting the question from asking yourself, “What do I want to get done today/next week/this year?” to, “How do I want to be today/next week/this year?” On a micro level, ask yourself why you are doing the things you’re doing as they occur. Why am I participating in this activity? Why am I posting this status on Facebook? Why am I sharing this thing told to me in confidence, or why am I not sharing more of myself in this relationship?
Be mindful of the moment
Being intentional, by definition, requires us to be engaged with ourselves in the present. For those not introspective to begin with, start with mindful ‘extrospection’ – noticing things around you that you otherwise miss as you move about your day. Being present with your environment can help you better connect with yourself.
Examine your past
Whether it’s at the end of the day, the end of the year, or looking back all the way to your childhood, reflecting upon your past actions for their intentions gives you a better framework from which to either continue those or make changes. Your own history is the best determinant of your future.
Just do it. And then keep doing it, before every action, big or small.
Samaiya Mushtaq is a resident physician training in psychiatry. She is particularly interested in the intersection of mental health, wellness, and spirituality in Muslim populations.
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ (peace be upon him) said, “Allah made the early hours blessed for my Ummah.”
I was once a morning person.
Every day at a time when the rest of the world were a few hours into their sleep, I would wake up and get up from bed within a few seconds. I would then make wudhu before returning to my room to pray the night prayer and read Qur’an. There would usually be a considerable amount of time before Fajr so you would find me doing my homework/revising/reading until Fajr. Sleep was nowhere near as exciting as these moments and a little nap before I had to get ready for school was more than sufficient.
I understood everything I studied and with time I started to build a relationship with the Qur’an where I would not be able to leave it. My concentration and focus were on point in everything that I did and I enjoyed an immense vigour and energy in learning that I have not felt since.
Regrettably, it is something I have lost gradually over the past few years and I crave its return more than anything. Therefore, having previously experienced the barakah (blessings) of the mornings, I can truly say that success does lie in the mornings, and I pray that Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala (exalted is He) allows myself and others to seize this remarkable treasure of time from now onwards.
“Whoever prays the Fajr prayer, he or she is then under Allah’s protection. So beware, O son or daughter of Adam, that Allah does not call you to account for being absent from His protection for any reason.”
No wonder there is something very special about this time in the morning. To be under the guard of The One who created us and the very world we live in is indeed an extraordinary endowment. Imagine having the protection of the most powerful being that has ever existed for the rest of the day, every day. Is it not worth winning the battle of the bed for this?
Some of the greatest people in history seized these very hours, which is why they managed to achieve exponentially more than we are able to using the same 24 hours in each day. This portion of time is what allows us to train ourselves, prepare our minds, our hearts, our characters ready to take on the rest of the world and the rest of the day. It is a time were we reconnect with our mission and our purpose. We meet with God to begin our days and we are no longer lost like the man without a mission, wandering aimlessly throughout the day.
It is prime time. Contrary to popular belief it is a time where we possess our highest levels of focus, willpower and energy; we unlock these treasures only when we know how to seize this gift from Allah (swt), and what a gift it is. What better way is there to start our days than by meeting with God? What better way is there than by receiving His Protection? Fajr sets the tone for the day. The word itself means dawn in Arabic and is derived from the root word infijar, to ’burst forth’. This denotes the sunlight erupting into the darkness of the night at that time of morning,illuminating the world, replacing darkness with light, clarity and vitality. Likewise, this time of day replaces the darkness in our hearts with light, clarity, and vitality.
And you know what is really amazing about this gift?
It is offered to us every single day.
Every single day we are being given the chance to change our spiritual architecture for the better. We can start each day equipped with a psychological edge and incredible mental confidence that carries through for the next 24 hours. It’s like a kaleidoscope. This barakah from Allah (swt) is like a kaleidoscope, a chain reaction. Once we are able to overcome the struggle within ourselves in the morning, it then opens more and more doors to success. Once seizing the morning becomes hardwired into our minds, it then becomes easier to incorporate other facets of discipline into our lives.
And that is how Allah (swt) guides the believers. We walk towards Him and He runs towards us. He gives and gives and gives.
The question is, will we take it?
We have awoken, and all of creation has awoken, for Allah, Lord of all the Worlds. Allah, I ask You for the best the day has to offer, victory, support, light, blessings and guidance; and I seek refuge in You from the evil in it, and the evil to come after it. Ameen.
The normal renal response when hypokalemia is due to non-renal causes is a TTKG <2, where a TTKG >5 is indicative of increased secretion of K+ in the cortical collecting ducts. Thus a transtubular potassium concentration gradient (TTKG) of greater than 3.0 indicates hypokalemia of renal origin, while a value below 2.0 indicates intracellular shift of K+, as found in ion channelopathy hypokalemic periodic paralysis.
The transtubular K+ concentration ([K+]) gradient (TTKG) is calculated using the following formula:
Amiodarone shows considerable interindividual variation in response. Thus, although a starting dose adequate to suppress life-threatening arrhythmias is needed, close monitoring with adjustment of dose as needed is essential. The recommended starting dose of Cordarone I.V. is about 1000 mg over the first 24 hours of therapy, delivered by the regimen given in above table.
After the first 24 hours, the maintenance infusion rate of 0.5 mg/min (720 mg/24 hours) should be continued utilizing a concentration of 1 to 6 mg/mL (Cordarone I.V. concentrations greater than 2 mg/mL should be administered via a central venous catheter). In the event of breakthrough episodes of VF or hemodynamically unstable VT, 150-mg supplemental infusions of Cordarone I.V. mixed in 100 mL of D5W may be administered. Such infusions should be administered over 10 minutes to minimize the potential for hypotension. The rate of the maintenance infusion may be increased to achieve effectivearrhythmia suppression.
The first 24-hour dose may be individualized for each patient; however, in controlled clinical trials, mean daily doses above 2100 mg were associated with an increased risk of hypotension. The initial infusion rate should not exceed 30 mg/min.
Based on the experience from clinical studies of Cordarone I.V., a maintenance infusion of up to 0.5 mg/min can be cautiously continued for 2 to 3 weeks regardless of the patients age, renal function, or left ventricularfunction. There has been limited experience in patients receiving Cordarone I.V. for longer than 3 weeks.
ECG Findings in RBBB:
QRS Morphology in the Lateral Leads
The R wave in the lateral leads may be either:
QRS Morphology in V1
The QRS complex in V1 may be either:
Incomplete LBBB is diagnosed when typical LBBB morphology is associated with a QRS duration < 120ms.
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